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But just when it looked like they'd never win, they didn't. Synopsis Edit Amy and Leela's performance in a sport called Butterfly Derby is enhanced when they become addicted to a nutritional supplement known as Nectar. Plot Edit Philip J. The farmer then informs them that if they want to see some real Moon culture they should come down to the Butterfly Derby on the same night. The crew then heads to the Monsanto Yokel Dome, where inside two girls are shown flying around, wearing a pair of butterfly wings on their arms and light, skimpy outfits.
Leela comments that she wasn't expecting this as it is quite elegant and serene. As soon as she is finished an announcement is made, introducing the reigning champions of the Butterfly Derby, the Murderflies. They then begin fighting the two other girls, with Leela commenting that this is what she has expected.
They then make quick work of the former two ladies. As their opponents lay defeated on the floor, the derby's host, Abner Doubledeal , tells the audience that there is a weekly Amateur Flapdown, where two Amy and Leela in action volunteers from the audience can come to the stage and compete against The Murderflies for a winning prize of 50 bucks. Amy and Leela decide to volunteer.
While Bender complains of why Fry and Bender don't do things together. They both put up a good fight against the Murderflies, but are eventually defeated. After the fight, Abner decides to offer Amy and Leela a place in the Butterfly Derby, as they are constantly looking for 'fresh blood', to which Amy and Leela agree. Bender decides to smash it and pulls out a hammer. Kif tries to warn him, but Bender ignores him and walks closer to it. CV was used in order to account for differences in abundance across populations. We used all years of data collected for each local population i.
We focused on overall summary statistics describing bull trout population dynamics instead of interannual variation in abundance because annual values of the predictor variables were unavailable see below. Migratory bull trout occupy diverse habitats throughout their lifetime, exposing them to various conditions that can potentially influence population dynamics at different life stages.
The direction of predicted effects was opposite for CV — population stochasticity would be higher in streams with more stressful climatic conditions. In several lakes and reservoirs adfluvial bull trout habitat , there are invasive predators that compete with and prey upon bull trout, including lake trout S. However, the combination of monitoring programmes that have changed over time within a single lake or reservoir, and different monitoring programmes employed across lakes and reservoirs, impedes quantifying an accurate and comparable metric describing invasive predator abundances.
To account for biotic and abiotic heterogeneity in foraging habitats, we grouped populations according to life history fluvial vs. All Fluvial populations were exposed to unsuppressed populations of invasive predators and competitors. Groupings were based on species recovery documents United States Fish and Wildlife Service and were confirmed by local fisheries managers and biologists.
We also retained this grouping strategy as a random intercept in subsequent modelling see below. Biologically, the relative importance of foraging habitat relative to spawning habitat helps characterize how life history, invasive species and control measures influence population dynamics over the entire life cycle. All modelling steps described below were replicated for each response variable. We used a natural log transformation for N and CV because both response variables are positive and continuous.
All predictor variables and interactive terms were treated as fixed effects. We fit linear mixed models in R using the package nlme.
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To reduce dimensionality of the initial candidate variable set seven additive and six interactive effects , we used simple linear mixed models and restricted maximum likelihood REML to test the significance of each additive and interactive effect main effects were also included in models with interactive terms. To compare the amount of variation explained by our variables representing conditions in headwater areas i.
Values for all predictor variables were standardized prior to data analyses by subtracting the mean value and dividing by the standard deviation, thereby facilitating comparison of effect sizes over the observed range of abiotic and biotic conditions. Populations with lower abundances were more stochastic and had lower, and often negative, population growth rates, while populations with higher abundances were less stochastic and tended to have stable or increasing growth rates. Generally, population abundances were high, had relatively low variability and had stable or increasing trajectories in populations inhabiting lake environments free of invasive fishes, or where invasive fishes were proactively suppressed Fig.
There was also some support for an effect of alluvial valley bottom habitat Alluvial on CV , but only when Patch was not included in a model, suggesting the two variables explained similar variation in the data. Also, models with Alluvial always had lower support than models with Patch , providing strong evidence that Patch better represents habitat conditions important for bull trout population dynamics.
There was little evidence that winter flooding Flow , or interactions between temperature and invasive species or land use i. S2 , normality Fig. S3 and independence Fig.
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The results were also robust to sample size. N and r increased with higher values of Patch and decreased with higher values of MaxTemp or MeanTemp. There was also evidence for negative additive effects of Roads and Inv on N , but additive effects of those variables on CV and r were minimal i. However, the interaction between Roads and Inv indicates that there was a negative synergistic effect on N and r at high values of both stressors Fig.
The random component of the model i. Together, these data emphasize the need for more a holistic approach to understanding climate change impacts on populations. However, the effects of temperature, invasive species and land use in spawning habitats were relatively similar Fig. Stream temperature acted additively to compound the negative interaction between invasive species and human land use in spawning habitats.
Patch size had the strongest effect on population dynamics in spawning habitat Fig. If that portion of the bull trout life cycle were ignored here, we would have concluded that stream temperature and invasive species have approximately equal effects on bull trout population dynamics. Instead, invasive species in foraging habitats were an additional stressor that further reduced population abundance, increased variability and decreased population growth rate. Although the effects of temperature and invasive fishes were relatively similar in spawning environments, the additional and compounding negative effect of invasive fishes in foraging habitat suggests that invasive competitors and predators are a major stressor influencing migratory bull trout populations.
All of these populations were exposed to invasive species in foraging habitats, and eight of nine were in the upper quartile of at least one additional stressor in spawning habitats four of nine were exposed to two or more stressors in the upper quartile. Only three of those populations were exposed to stream temperatures in the upper quartile of observed variation. Therefore, multiple stressors, particularly invasive fishes in foraging and spawning habitats, appear to be leading small bull trout populations to extirpation.
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